The very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) properties of four 18Ni maraging steels were investigated. Ultrasonic fatigue tests were performed on thin sheets with nitrided surfaces at load ratio R = 0.1. Traditional maraging steel containing Ti (material A) showed crack initiation at TiN-inclusions. The elimination of Ti and the increase in Co content (material B) lead to preferential crack initiation at aluminate-inclusions. Aluminate-inclusions are less damaging than TiN-inclusions, and material B shows higher VHCF strength than material A. A further developed maraging steel (material C) with reduced Co content that is compensated for by alloying with Al showed crack initiation at aluminate- as well as at Zr(N,C)-inclusions. Zr(N,C)-inclusions are more damaging than aluminate-inclusions and less damaging than TiN-inclusions. The highest VHCF strength was found for a recently developed alloy with further increased Al content (material D). In addition to inclusion-initiated fracture, this material showed shear mode crack initiation in the nitrided zone at the surface.