The impact of selected cellulose solvent systems based on the principal constituents tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF), 1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium-acetate, N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide, or calcium thiocyanate octahydrate (CTO) on the properties of cellulose II aerogels prepared from these solvent systems has been investigated as a means towards tailoring cellulose aerogel properties with respect to specific applications. Cotton linters were used as representative plant cellulose. Cellulose was coagulated from solutions with comparable cellulose content, and dried with supercritical carbon dioxide after solvent exchange. The resulting bulk aerogels were comprehensively morphologically and mechanically tested to relate structure and mechanical properties. Different solvent systems caused considerable differences in the properties of the bulk samples, such as internal surface area (nitrogen sorption), morphology, porosity (He pycnometry, thermoporosimetry), and mechanical stability (compression testing). The results of SAXS, WAXS, and solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy suggest that this is due to different mechanisms of cellulose self-assembling on the supramolecular and nanostructural level, respectively, as reflected by the broad ranges of cellulose crystallinity, fibril diameter, fractal dimension and skeletal density. Both solid state NMR and WAXS experiments confirmed the sole existence of the cellulose II allomorph for all aerogels, with crystallinity reaching a maximum of 4650 % for CTO-derived aerogels. Generally, higher fibril diameter, degree of crystallinity, hence increased skeletal density were associated with good preservation of shape and dimension throughout conversion of lyogels to aerogels, and enhanced mechanical stability, but somewhat reduced specific surface area. Amorphous, yet highly rigid aerogels derived from TBAF/DMSO mixtures deviated from this trend, most likely due to their particular homogeneous and nanostructured morphology.