Besides sealing of agriculturally used soils, soil erosion by water can be considered the quantitatively most severe process for soil loss in Austria. The immediate effect of an application of anhydrous lime on erosion susceptibility of farmland has delivered contradictory results so far. Therefore we conducted a rainfall simulation experiment in the alpine forelands of Austria to test immediate (within one month) soil erosion and surface runoff effects following lime application. We applied two different types of anhydrous lime at a rate of 2 t / ha. Undisturbed soil cores (100 cm / 50 cm / 30 cm) were transported to the lab and simulated rainfall applied with an intensity of 72 mm / h for 120 minutes followed by a second rainfall simulation of 30 minutes and 110 mm / h rainfall intensity. Application of anhydrous lime in form of coarse aggregates (KG: 3 - 8 mm) tended to deliver higher soil loss and surface runoff compared to the unfertilized plot, while the pulverized form (KF) of anhydrous lime tended to deliver lower soil loss and surface runoff compared to the unfertilized plot. The relationship between aggregate stability and soil loss of the tested variants was weak with the exception of one replicate. In response to fertilizing, in both samples, the pH value significantly increased. The amount of free lime only increased for plot KG. The changes in surface roughness during the rainfall simulations of the different plots were evaluated using photogrammetric techniques. After a spraying time of 120 minutes, all plots showed small changes in soil height. After the second rainfall simulation run of 30 minutes, no more settlement was observed. Strong variations of the results between the different times of sample withdrawal were observed. They may be attributed to various changing factors, e. g. sampling time or prevailing weather conditions. Therefore, further work should be realised on this subject, probably also including microbial activities of the tested environments during rainfall simulation experiments.