The aim of this study was to calculate the potentially human-edible fraction of feedstuffs and the human-edible feed conversion efficiency (heFCE; ratio of human edible output and potentially human edible input) of animal production systems for Austria. Data were obtained from the National Feedstuff Balance for 2001/2002 and 2010/2011. In a first step, the potentially human-edible fraction of concentrates was estimated on the basis of an extensive literature research on average recovery rates and processing losses, which was done separately for dry matter, crude protein and gross energy. In a second step, these human-edible fractions of individual feedstuffs were aggregated to edible fractions of rations for most relevant livestock systems. Finally, the heFCE was calculated as the ratio of the human-edible outputs of animal production and the potentially human-edible feed fractions. As expected, ruminants had relatively low human-edible fractions in their rations, which were mostly below 20 %. Only intensive beef production systems with a high input of cereal grains appeared to have values above 20 %, and, as a consequence, they are typically positioned in between the other ruminants and monogastric livestock. The potentially human-edible fractions in diets for pigs and poultry were much higher, showing values between 30 and 80 %. The heFCE was also substantially different for different ruminant categories and production systems: Cattle in general and especially dairy cows clearly differ from the other species and livestock production systems. The small ruminant species and intensively fattened bulls are positioned between average cattle and dairy cows on the one hand and monogastric livestock on the other. Dairy cows are the only category showing a heFCE above 100 % for both protein and energy for all years investigated; hence, their net contribution to human food supply was always positive.