Chromium-containing components in municipal solid waste (MSW) (e.g. products made from leather or stainless steel) may bear the risk of formation and release of chromium(VI) during waste treatment and landfilling, thus causing a potential to endanger man and environment. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to examine the disposal practices for chromium-containing products disposed by Austrian private households as well as the behaviour and fate of chromium during waste treatment and landfilling. To this end, material flow analyses focusing on leather shoes were created to analyse disposal paths, the disposed quantities and the associated chromium loads in the Austrian waste management system. Furthermore, the combustion of leather shoes when part of residual waste was simulated at laboratory scale. The results show, almost all fractions of MSW may contain chromium-containing products. Part of the chromium which enters the waste management system through the disposal of chromium-containing products is recycled. This is the case for predominantly metals which are separately collected or separated from other waste fractions during waste treatment. In the waste management system remaining chromium ends up in landfills, in particular in landfills for incineration residues (“Reststoffdeponie”). The current chromium concentrations in Austrian residual waste can be technically managed in mechanical-biological and thermal waste treatment. Nevertheless, during thermal treatment part of the chromium can oxidise to the highly mobile chromium(VI), which is transferred to the solid incineration residues. Landfilling these may lead to a direct contamination of water bodies due to a release of chromium(VI) via landfill leachates or, alternatively, may require further treatment of leachate. In general, however, landfilling of residues from the incineration of MSW causes no environmental problems in Austria.