Due to a genetic bottleneck, during the transition from landraces to cultivars, many alleles were lost. The preservation of these alleles as a source of genes for future needs in plant breeding or for growing in specific marginal areas like the inner Alpine regions is important. As a part of the Interreg-IV-Project CereAlp, 9 spelt- and 59 rye landraces from the Tyrolean genebank were cultivated together with modern check cultivars. Many agronomic and quality characteristics were evaluated. Moreover, minerals and trace elements were quantified using ICP-MS. Landraces differed in many parameters significantly from the check cultivars which usually performed better than the landraces. Some well adapted landraces were identified which outperformed the check cultivars with respect to some traits. Generally, the genetic variation is significantly higher in landraces for almost all traits. The tested germplasm was classified into phenotypic groups by multivariate statistics (i.e. principal components analysis and cluster analysis). For rye, concentrations of minerals and trace elements were generally higher for the landraces which is most probably due to a smaller kernel size. Concentrations of contaminants were in both species lower than the statutory maximum values. It can be concluded that some of the landraces can be of interest in terms of processing, biomass production, breeding and cultivation in the inner Alpine Areas.