In Austria drinking water supply is covered by 99 percent out of Groundwater. 49 % originate from wells (groundwater from porous solid rock or karst solid rock) and 50 % from fractured and layered aquifers. Therefore it is one of the most important resources. Hence it is to be protected in an extensive and sustainable way. With this thesis a method for a holistic reflection of groundwater systems, the “groundwater treatment concept” is developed and tested in a theoretical way. Considering the legal regulations, e.g. the water framework directive, the groundwater directive, which are implemented in the Austrian water act, and the state of the scientific and technical knowledge the main components of such a concept, the actual stock analysis, the ideal target state (visionary reference conditions) and the realistic target state (realistic reference conditions), the catalogue of measures and a monitoring programme, and contents are determined and illustrated. Thereby the necessary data and parameters are listed, for example containing information about general statistics, a short description of the hydrology in the Vienna area, drinking water supply, sewage disposal and waste water treatment, irrigation, abandoned hazardous sites, use of geothermal energy and the groundwater management plan of the city of Vienna. By means of to examples located in the Vienna area, namely the 11th district of Vienna and a part of the 22nd district of Vienna (Lobau), this method is tested in theory and reduced to practise in a theoretical way. This thesis shows two main results. One the one hand that it is possible to handle complex problems with groundwater systems in a integrated and multidisciplinary way, like it is practised for rivers for many years now. On the other hand that in future the “groundwater treatment concept” could be a practicable method to enable holistic and sustainable planning for groundwater bodies.