In this work the influence of within field position, adjoining semi-natural habitat and landscape composition on the diversity and density of carabid beetles was explored. Moreover, treatment effects (SWA, grassy margins, fields adjoining SWA and fields adjoining grassy margins) on carabid assemblage similarity were studied. Twenty winter wheat fields from ten different Swiss agricultural landscapes were selected for this work, with two wheat fields (one with an adjoining SWA and one with an adjoining grassy margin) located in each landscape. Overall, activity-density was higher in fields than adjoining SWA and species richness was significantly larger in grassy margins than adjoining wheat fields. Among the most abundant species, higher densities of Agonum muelleri and Poecilus cupreus were observed in field centres compared to the edges. Pterostichus melanarius was more abundant in centre than edge positions, showed significant interactions between within-field position and landscape composition, and between adjoining habitat and landscape composition. Activity-density of Bembidion properans increased at the field edges with increasing amount of perennial habitat; in addition, a significant interaction between within-field position and landscape position was observed. Harpalus rufipes was more abundant in fields adjoining SWA than in fields adjoining grassy margins. The activity-densities of macropterous, polyphagous carnivorous and euryoecious open habitat beetles were significantly higher in fields than adjoining SWA. Species richness of stenoecious open habitat carabids was significantly higher in grassy margins compared to adjoining fields. A strong significant effect of the factor treatment and a weaker significant effect of landscape on carabid assemblages were observed. Our findings support most of our expectations but higher promotion of carabids in wheat fields by SWA compared to grassy margins could not be shown.