The placenta is normally deemed as clinical waste. Due to the amount of over 5 million births per year in the European Union , the placenta is likely the most easily accessible human tissue of consistent quality that does not cause any additional harm to the donor. Furthermore, the placenta develops together, from the mother and with the baby, during pregnancy. This fetal or neonatal origin of the tissue could have a positive impact on the quality of graft material. In this work, we established a decellularization procedure for small-diameter human vascular scaffolds harvested from placenta chorion. The scaffolds were characterized biochemically, histologically and examined for their cytocompatibility with endothelial cells. The ability to decellularize the vascular tissue using this protocol, and the demonstrated ability to recellularize indicates the ability of the material to function as a versatile tool for novel tissue engineering approaches and regenerative medicine. With our experiments we demonstrate the biocompatibility of decellularized vascular tissue from the human placenta. The tissue was successfully recellularized with endothelial cells (ECs), which, in co-culture with ASCs, displayed vascular tube formation from the scaffold. A prospective target of this project will be to facilitate a complete re-endothelialization of human vascular grafts with endothelial cells for further applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Our dual-level approach should ensure oxygen and nutrient supply in varying tissue sizes and thus represent a novel vascularization strategy. Initial experiments were performed to evaluate the quality of decellularized vascular grafts to be used in clinical applications as small diameter vascular grafts. Therefore, the anticoagulant heparin was covalently linked to the collagen matrix of the decellularized vessel graft. Furthermore, to determine the potential of placental substances, pure collagen isolated from human placenta tissue was characterized. Circular Dichroism (CD) Spectroscopy analysis of collagen isolated from the human placenta confirmed a natural secondary structure of the purified molecules. Moreover, using this collagen for cell cultivation showed no cytotoxicity and a supporting effect on cell adhesion and proliferation of primary hepatocytes in vitro.