In the introduction of the thesis, an overview of landscape-level patterns and processes relevant for soil zoology is given. Issues like landscape heterogeneity, fragmentation, land use history and dispersal are discussed for Collembola, Oribatida, Gamasida, terrestrial nematodes and Lumbricidae. Springtails and earthworms were found to be affected by habitat fragmentation, land use history and landscape structure. To use Collembola in biodiversity assessments or landscape ecological projects, their sampling needs to be optimized. Pitfall traps and soil cores were combined to collect both eu- and epedaphic species. Identifying two to five replicates each collected a high total species number with a low sampling, sorting and identification effort. To investigate the effects of a natural forest fire and the following succession on the Collembola in a subalpine habitat a recently burned, a fifty year burned and a reference site were compared. The communities in all three sites were different, indicating that the Collembola need much longer than fifty years to recover from this large scale landscape change in this harsh subalpine environment. The final part of the thesis addresses effects of landscape heterogeneity on Collembola communities in agricultural fields. Both the eu- and epedaphic species were found to be influenced by the composition of the landscape surrounding the investigated sites. Site variables like soil index or vegetation cover had low explanatory power for the diversity. Landscape diversity at a 1,500 m radius around the fields was the best predicting landscape variable. Two spatial scales were found relevant for the landscape variables around the investigated fields, namely small scale effects at close radii and large scale effects at 1,000-2,000 m radii around the sites. Active migration and passive dispersal with wind might be responsible for this spatial differentiation. Probably both processes frequently take place in open landscapes.