There are compounds affecting an organism upon incorporation in such a toxic manner, that they are able to promote and in some cases even initiate tumour in tissue without any direct interaction with the respective cellular DNA. This characteristic is eponymous for a toxicological classified group of compounds called non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGCs). Because of the diversity of possible and in some cases tissue-spanning effects, the exact modes of action of NGCs are still. We have set us to investigate relatively well-studied NGCs and define modes of action and subsequently biomarker candidates for them. NGCs are metabolised in the liver and thereby affect the cells there. We used rats as model species, because it is know that rodents are more sensitive towards the effects of NGCs than humans. Our model compounds were nafenopin and phenobarbital. For the purpose of analysing these cells, we decided to use shotgun proteomics, which allows analysing the (sub-cellular) proteome of cells by utilising a combination of 1D SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. By comparing the proteomes of cells, alterations in the protein expression become apparent. To summarise the results, we found various noteworthy alterations in the proteomes suggesting amongst others that an autocrine and paracrine cell-cell interaction is important for NGCs mode of action. We also investigated the inflammatory response of peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs). By comparing the proteomes of untreated and inflammatory activated PBMCs, we were able to determine cell specific inflammatory signatures. This short-list of proteins was used for subsequent investigations, namely a study of coffee and mould fungi extract aiming to determine modulating effects of these exogenous compounds. As a result, we noted an activating as well as an enhancing effect of coffee on naïve and inflammatory activated PBMCs, respectively, while the mould fungi extracts showed a weak anti-inflammatory capacity.