Aimed at assessing wild and cultivated fruits regarding species composition and diversity, state of exploitation and management, cultural domain and local knowledge of people, this study took place in three districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia, between July 2006 and May 2008. Individual interviews, free-listing, focus group discussions, direct observation, farm and market fruit inventories were resorted to data gleaning. Overall, fruit species diversity is low in homegardens compared to the wilderness. Altogether, 46 species made up the wild fruits cultural domain, youngsters possessing a better knowledge of species than elders. Albeit primarily for non-fruit uses, a low level of wild fruit domestication is in progress, the propensity to which pessimistically influenced by free availability mindset, illiteracy and land shortage. In gardens, species richness is favorably influenced by altitude and gardeners training and inversely by distance from market and residence. Tree number is higher in large sized and male - headed household gardens and lower in distant to market gardens. Fruit production lacks access to and use of modern inputs, management and technical support. Soil fertility is maintained high; production is organic and is dependent on supplemental irrigation. Fruits from both sources are accessible year-round with large overlap at times of food and nutrition gaps. Nonetheless, the level of use is very low stemming from peoples dietary custom, ignorance of nutritional value, cash need and local taboos. Hence, wild fruit bearing species are used primarily for non - fruit utilities. Besides, though all cultivated and few wild fruits are sold, trade flows, prices, and incomes are low. In-depth research and wider promotion of five domesticated and nine wild fruit species, fruit mainstreaming, wild fruits germplasm collection & evaluation, improved input supply and technical backstopping are suggested.