Bread wheat is the major crop, and drought stress is the main factor limiting wheat production in Iran. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to yield and yield components under drought stress is the main objective of this study. Two parental genotypes, contrasting in agronomic and morphological traits of interest, one, Tabassi, a typical Iranian drought tolerant landrace the other, the highly bred and non-drought tolerant European wheat variety Taifun, were crossed to produce a population of 118 F2:7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). A linkage map, based on 202 polymorphic SSR markers and three morphological traits, i.e. awnedness, spike pubescence and flag leaf waxyness providing 217 loci, was constructed covering 2795 cM of the genome. Phenotypic data for grain yield and number per ten spikes, 1000-kernel weight, and spike length, spikelet per spike, plant height, and ear emergence time were collected under two non-drought, as well as three drought stress conditions in Austria, Iran and Hungary. Out of 146 putative QTLs, 39 were identified as major ones (R ≥ 10%), with an average of 5.6 QTLs per trait. Chromosome 4D is strongly suggested as a QTL-rich region for yield, yield components, and other agronomic traits under drought stress. Chromosomes of group 3 are suggested to have major QTLs for grain and spikelet per spike, as well as spike length, under drought. Chromosome 7A was also confirmed to have major QTLs for yield under drought. Application of potassium iodide to simulate a post anthesis drought condition was highly efficient. Tabassi and populations derived from its crossing with Taifun represent an excellent genetic source for any further study on drought, as well as salinity and heat stresses, and for breeding purposes.