Dactylorhiza sambucina is an European terrestrial orchid with yellow and purple flowering individuals mostly within each population. The functional explanation of this flower color polymorphism is investigated and broadly discussed in the present scientific study outlining some strategic differences of both morph types. Field studies on populations in Groisbach and Glashütten, both located in the Vienna Woods in Lower Austria, showed differences in fitness estimates between yellow and purple plants with respect to its seed masses. While purple plants show highest fitness estimates given relatively low seed masses and lowest fitness estimates given relatively high seed masses, yellow plants are characterised by the inverse pattern. In this study, in consideration of different influencing factors such as morph types energy budget and specific attraction to pollinators it is suggested, that both morph types are characterized by different age-dependent vitality and recruiting behaviour: disturbance-tolerant purple flowering individuals serve for fast establishment and phenological early spread of populations, while stress-tolerant yellow flowering individuals serve for long-term population stabilization.