Against the background of worldwide growing demand of food, the increasing use of agricultural areas for producing bio-energy must be critically scrutinized. To avoid the food- fuel problem, new methods are developed to use agricultural residues. The objective of this thesis is the development of a spatially explicit mixed integer linear programming model, which is designed as a two stage warehouse-location-problem. Based on the available amount of straw in Austria, the model calcula-tion determines the optimal geographic plant locations, as well as plant sizes and capacity. The determination of the minimum cost structure of the BtL- production in Austria is taking into account the possibility of a spatially and temporarily separate division of the process, in the so-called pyrol-ysis and synthesis. The different interpretations of potential and competitive situations in the utilization of straw are taken into account by the formation of two supply scenarios. The model results show that a production network consisting of regional pyrolysis plants and one central processing facility for the synthesis of straw is the most favorable option. In both scenarios the plant locations are realized mainly in arable regions. The geographic location of the central synthesis plant is situated in Korneuburg (Austria). Total process costs, depending on the scenario are 183 /t and 192 /t straw, which corresponds to the production cost of 1/liter of fuel.