Recent developments have been showing a worldwide increasing competition between food for humans and livestock. Todays rations in dairy nutrition are often based on high concentrate rates, which reinforces this competition. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to determine the effect of the abandonment of concentrates in organic dairy nutrition on milk yield, animal health and economics. Basic data was collected from eight organic dairy farms where no concentrates were fed (KF0). This data (from 2010 and 2011) was compared with results from about 140 Austrian organic dairy farms included in a federal extension program. The 140 farms were divided into three groups, depending on the amount of concentrate fed per cow and year (KF1: up to 975 kg, KF2: 976-1,400 kg, KF3: more than 1.400 kg). The ECM yield increased from 5,093 kg in KF0 to 6,828 kg in KF3. Calculated forage milk yield decreased by increasing concentrate supplementation from 5,093 kg (KF0) to 4,412 kg (KF3). Data related to animal health did not significantly differ between the four groups. However, the calving interval was longer in KF0 but non-return-rate and insemination index were the same. Although milk yield per cow was lowest in KF0, the marginal income per cow was on the same level as in the other groups. The marginal income per kg milk decreased significantly from KF0 to the other groups.