Rural communities in Lao PDR are highly dependent on natural resources for cash income and subsistence. Approximately 80% of the Lao PDR population live in rural areas with a 40% poverty incident rate. Due to a variety of factors such as population growth, opening up of the economy, implementation of government policies and forest degradation, the livelihoods of the rural peoples and their access to natural resources are being altered. Within this setting a livelihood strategy analysis was conducted, in Mang village, Oudomxay. The interrelations between changing access to specific natural resources and rural livelihood strategies of villagers within different wealth categories and different genders were studied. This research was conducted using the sustainable livelihoods framework. Results show significant changes in livelihood strategies and associated land uses over the past 10 years. Upland rice cultivation and animal husbandry, although still important, have decreased; while strategies such as lowland rice, sesame, maize, puak muak, posa and rubber tree cultivation have increased. Nevertheless, not all livelihood transitions are occurring at the same rate or in the same direction. Adoption disparities of certain livelihood strategies are apparent between wealth categories. For example, people within the richest wealth category cultivate more lowland rice and were the first to adopt this strategy. In addition, the access to certain natural resources also differs between wealth categories. For example, the majority of the agricultural land of the richest wealth category is located closer than that of the other wealth categories. The way in which natural resources are accessed has also changed. One of the most noticeable changes is in the access to land due to the new land allocation polices. Overall, significant changes in livelihood strategies and the way natural resources are accessed have occurred.