The intensification of agricultural practices with simultaneous loss of semi-natural habitats has led to a decline in biodiversity in the agricultural landscape. One way to promote and obtain biodiversity, is the establishment of fallows through agri-environmental programs. As part of the project “Lebensraum Acker” (MA 22, Umweltschutzabteilung der Stadt Wien), arable land is taken from production and maintained as fallows, with the purpose to increase biodiversity in the agricultural landscape. In this work activity density, species richness, diversity and evenness of ground beetles (Carabidae) were studied in 10-year-old fallows, 15-20-year-old hedges and winter wheat fields in Oberlaa (Vienna). Three winter wheat habitat types were investigated (winter wheat adjacent to the fallows, winter wheat adjacent to the hedges and control winter wheat fields without adjacent semi-natural habitat). It was assumed that species richness, diversity and evenness are higher in fallows than in winter wheat. Using three pitfall traps per study area the carabid fauna was investigated between end of April to end of June 2011. Significantly higher activity density was observed in winter wheat than in fallows and hedges. No significant differences were found for species richness. Diversity was significantly higher in fallows than in control wheat fields. Regarding evenness, no significant differences were detected. The analysis of species assemblages with a principal coordinate analysis (=PCO) showed, that the species assemblages of winter wheat were very similar, but were clearly different from species assemblages of fallows and hedges. There were also differences in species assemblages between fallows and hedges. PERMANOVA showed a significant habitat effect on species assemblages. The species assemblages of fallows and hedges differed significantly from those of winter wheat habitats. It was found, that in the fallows and hedges unique species assemblages can be established, thus contributing to the diversification of carabid fauna in the agricultural landscape. Moreover, the fallows and hedges provided habitats for some endangered species, therefore are important for the conservation of endangered species within the agricultural landscape.