Livestock is a major source of income in rural communities; the rising demand for livestock products is requesting more efficient breeding strategies. In the formerly extensively and traditionally grazed and managed rangelands of South Western Uganda, a production system is emerging where cattle breeders keep two separate herds, a purebred Ankole herd and a herd of Ankole crossbreds. Different institutional frameworks in Uganda, e.g. government institutions, national agricultural research organisations, cattle breeders communities, provide possibilities to launch breeding programmes. Missing participative integration of livestock keepers has troubled the success of many well intended breeding programmes. The thesis aims at better understanding the mechanisms of breeding as carried out by individual farmers as well as by communities. Data was collected from 34 interviewees with a semi-structured questionnaire including a progeny history and was carried out in Kiruhura district in South Western Uganda. The interviews were transcript and entered into an ‘Atlas.ti-database for analysis. Friesian-Ankole crossbreds are kept for income generation through higher milk yield and therefore better marketing possibilities, furthermore a wide range of modern and new management system has been introduced together with the exotic cattle. Nevertheless the problem of adaptation to the environment is recognised and of relevance in breeding decision making. The Bahima pastoralists in Kiruhura district have a strong relationship to their Ankole cattle and their crossbred cattle, highlighting the importance of local, indigenous breeds forming the cultural basis of pastoralists in rural livelihoods. The Ankole cattle breeders of Kiruhura district developed flourishing strategies based on their indigenous knowledge which should be preserved and established in any planed breeding programme. The thesis indicates that farmers have preference for breeds with high milk and meat production Furthermore it identified that the knowledge flow on animal husbandry, particularly on breeding strategies and progeny history, in families and communities is commonly functioning.