Water is an indispensable resource for the people and the environment. A crucial role plays the ground water protection as base for the drinking water abstraction. The main direct threats to groundwater quality are entries from nitrate that are essentially caused through agricultural use. In this work the example of the nitrogen problem is used to show potential agri-environmental policies that bring the environmental needs in line with the economic needs of agriculture. As such a consistent groundwater friendly land management should be, thus, ensured. This work has been written based on a widespread literature research. Nitrogen fertilization is - especially in the cultivation of land - one of the most important tools for farmers to control the plant population as well as to generate earnings and quality. The increased nitrogen use in agriculture, however, causes a conflict with the protection of groundwater and calls for action to limit nitrogen inputs to a tolerable level. This applies especially to the action of nitrogen elutriation, measures to reduce atmospheric nitrogen losses, the mineralization, the surface runoff and measures for fertilizer management. On the basis of legal and political requirements these measures are regulated at European and national level through mandatory and voluntary provisions. It can be assumed that further consistent implementation of the action program for nitrate can further reduce the nitrate contamination of groundwater. The voluntary actions of the “ÖPUL” (Austrian program for sustainable agriculture) program support the achievement of objectives. Additional efforts will still be necessary for a groundwater-friendly land management. Advice and sensitization can provide a significant contribution.