Some wheat genotypes contain anthocyanins in the pericarp or the aleurone layer. This seed pigmentation is controlled by different genes. Anthocyanins are assumed to have a positive influence on the human body, mainly by their antioxidative capacity. Therefore, foods containing anthocyanins are becoming more and more interesting for the production of functional foods. In this thesis, purple Ethiopian tetraploid wheat, purple and blue grained hexaploid wheat, and breeding lines derived from crosses between purple and blue grained hexaploid wheat, were investigated with respect to their total anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity. The results revealed lowest levels of anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity for the Ethiopian wheat genetic resources, whereas crosses between purple and blue hexaploid wheat exhibited the highest values. Moreover, the anthocyanin composition was analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The two main anthocyanins in blue grains were delphinidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-glycoside, whereas in purple seeds cyanidin-3-glycoside quantitatively was predominant.