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Title
Incorporation of copra meal in the formulation of diet for milkfish (Chanos chanos), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) / by Carolyne Kerubo Guto
AuthorGuto, Carolyne Kerubo
Thesis advisorLiti, David M. ; Waidbacher, Herwig ; Meulenbroek, Paul
Published2015
DescriptionX, 77 Bl. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
Institutional NoteWien, Univ. für Bodenkultur, Masterarb., 2015
LanguageEnglish
Document typeMaster Thesis
Keywords (DE)Milkfish, grey mullet, red snapper, mangrove red snapper, copra meal, Kenia
Keywords (EN)Milkfish, grey mullet, red snapper, mangrove red snapper, copra meal, Kenia
Keywords (GND)Fischzucht / Fischfutter
URNurn:nbn:at:at-ubbw:1-6901 Persistent Identifier (URN)
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 The work is publicly available
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Incorporation of copra meal in the formulation of diet for milkfish (Chanos chanos), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) [1.97 mb]
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Abstract (German)

The study was conducted with an aim of formulating a cheap feed that can promote fish growth and survival. The milkfish, grey mullet (herbivorous), mangrove red snapper and red snapper (carnivorous) were cultured in cages. The culture diets formulated included: "sagana" (control - 25% crude protein (CP)), 6%s (6% sardine content) formulated (23% CP), 12%s (12% sardine content) formulated (23% CP) and snapper formulated (12%s) (25% CP). Milkfish's carcass lipid content increased with the increase in the amount of copra meal incorporated in fish diets. Milkfish's survival was high while grey mullet's was low when fed with "sagana", 6%s formulated and 12%s formulated diets. Survival of mangrove red and red snapper fed with "sagana" was higher than in the snapper formulated diet. There was insufficient fish growth in all the fish species cultured. Incorporation of copra meal aided in feed cost reduction by 3 times (6% formulated diet). The feeding level of 3% of the body weight once daily was low because it did not promote fish growth. The culture conditions were not at their optimum due to the low dietary protein, feeding level and feeding frequency. This led to low survival in grey mullet and insufficient fish growth. The incorporation of 12% fish meal could be appropriate for fish diets. The incorporation of copra meal in fish diets aids in feed cost reduction. The feeding level of 3% with the low crude protein diets was low and thus led to poor fish growth in the fish species cultured and low survival in grey mullet. Further investigation on incorporation of copra meal in fish diets and its impact on fish growth are recommended before full scale implementation. The incorporation of automatic feeders is recommended.

Abstract (English)

The study was conducted with an aim of formulating a cheap feed that can promote fish growth and survival. The milkfish, grey mullet (herbivorous), mangrove red snapper and red snapper (carnivorous) were cultured in cages. The culture diets formulated included: "sagana" (control - 25% crude protein (CP)), 6%s (6% sardine content) formulated (23% CP), 12%s (12% sardine content) formulated (23% CP) and snapper formulated (12%s) (25% CP). Milkfish's carcass lipid content increased with the increase in the amount of copra meal incorporated in fish diets. Milkfish's survival was high while grey mullet's was low when fed with "sagana", 6%s formulated and 12%s formulated diets. Survival of mangrove red and red snapper fed with "sagana" was higher than in the snapper formulated diet. There was insufficient fish growth in all the fish species cultured. Incorporation of copra meal aided in feed cost reduction by 3 times (6% formulated diet). The feeding level of 3% of the body weight once daily was low because it did not promote fish growth. The culture conditions were not at their optimum due to the low dietary protein, feeding level and feeding frequency. This led to low survival in grey mullet and insufficient fish growth. The incorporation of 12% fish meal could be appropriate for fish diets. The incorporation of copra meal in fish diets aids in feed cost reduction. The feeding level of 3% with the low crude protein diets was low and thus led to poor fish growth in the fish species cultured and low survival in grey mullet. Further investigation on incorporation of copra meal in fish diets and its impact on fish growth are recommended before full scale implementation. The incorporation of automatic feeders is recommended.