Farming has been constantly developed since the Neolithic Revolution, based on farmers' experiments and innovations. Farmers' experiments can be conducted purposefully with similarities to scientific experiments (explicit experiments) or unconsciously as part of the daily farming practice (implicit experiments). This study focuses on the farmers' perception of their own experimental processes, comparing the view points of farmers with and without contact to a participatory plant breeding research project (FP-project) in two research areas in rural Cuba. Farmers' definitions of experiments, their communication patterns and examples for implicit and explicit experiments were assessed via participant and non-participant observation, farm walks and unstructured and semi-structured interviews with 26 farmers (14 FP-farmers) and eight experts, during a field stay for four months in Cuba. Qualitative data analysis was performed. While evidence for implicit experiments was found in all farmers' cases, the existence of explicit experiments was fostered by the FP-project. Also farmers' perceptions of their own experimental processes were influenced by the involvement in the FP-project. While FP-farmers considered their experiments as such and used the expression "to experiment", non-FP-farmers labelled their experiments as experience or day-to-day practice and used colloquial expressions such as "to try" or "to invent". FP-farmers were conscious of their own experimental processes; without contact to the FP-project, farmers" experiments stayed mostly implicit, performed as intuitive response to challenges of daily life. The FP-project was found to make parts of the implicit experimental knowledge of farmers explicit.