The food purchase behavior can have severe impacts on the environment, because animal products, industrially produced or imported food for example have more harmful consequences for the environment than vegetable, organic or local food. A quantitative inquiry in supermarkets was made, where 402 people in Vienna were interviewed about their comprehension and knowledge of ecofriendly groceries and their environmental behavior and motives when purchasing food. The statistical analysis of the interviews, by means of the statistical software SPSS showed that the respondents perceived packaging and transport as the greatest ecological damages caused by the food sector, whereas animal production, which is especially resource- and energy-intensive, is not that frequently judged as environmentally harmful. Lots of people try to take environmental aspects into consideration when buying groceries, for example with organic quality or regional origin. This seems particularly important with fruits, vegetables or dairy products. Gender as well as age, level of education and district group show a statistically significant relation with environmental behavior. Female, young and highly-educated people have a more favourable environmental behavior as well as people from districts with above-average number of Green voters or voters of the social democratic party. Target-group adapted environmental communication and political measures can potentially improve the environmental behavior in food shopping.