This diploma thesis, which was conducted in the framework of the project ”OPTIMA Lobau” comprises a qualitative analysis of human uses in the Viennese Lobau. In the past anthropogenic uses in the area of the Lobau were highly diverse. Until the breakdown of the Austrian monarchy the landscape, which was influenced by the dynamics of the Danube and the ownership relations, was dominated by an intense hunting use and game management. Limiting factors for an increase of use for e. g. agriculture and the appearance of new utilizations were the periodically occurring floods and the therewith connected morphodynamic processes. With the great regulation of the Danube at the end of the 19th century and the subsequent changes in the floodplain area an intensification of the silvicultural and agricultural use started. By creating new sites, which were not exposed to the danger of flooding anymore, new utilizations could have been established in this area. During the interwar time and the time of World War II., the intensity and diversification of the utilizations accelerated. In the 1960s, the city of Vienna started to use the ground-water of the Lobau because of a rise in water consumption of the Viennese population. In the last decades the importance of the Lobau as recovering and recreation area as well as its importance as nature protection reserve increased strongly. The Viennese Lobau, since 1996 listed under the protection status „National Park“, has more than half a million visitors yearly. A visitor management is conducted with the main aim to educate people and to provide the possibility to experience nature. Although the area is assigned as a national park, it shows from an ecological point of view strong anthropogenic influences.