The agrarian structure of Bavaria is comparable to Austria and both countries defined similar quantitative targets for organic farming. However, in Bavaria only 6% of agricultural land is certified organic, compared to 20% in Austria. This thesis analyses the differences in the development of organic farming during the period 19892011. To find out which barriers prevented a stronger growth of organic farming in Bavaria, the relevant literature was reviewed, and the preliminary results discussed with six experts. The results highlight the differences in the structure of agricultural production and food retail, in the institutional framework, and in the changes in the agricultural policy. Barriers for an increase in organic farming in Bavaria were identified in agricultural policy, support payments, marketing structure and consumers demand. Overall, in Bavaria, the changing signals from policy were judged as the most important barrier. Organic farming did not receive a strong or continuous support through agricultural policy. Indeed, the mission statement for Bavarian agriculture did not emphasize organic farming. In comparison to Austria, support payments for organic farming were not appealing to farmers: effective support programs started later, payment levels were lower, and varied more between years. Moreover, attractiveness of organic farming relative to other programs (e.g. extensification, bio-energy) was limited. The marketing structure was also a barrier: in Bavaria organic food is traditionally sold in specialized shops. As a result, conventional supermarkets started late to offer organic products, delaying a wider availability to consumers. Related to this marketing structure, consumers demand was also delayed, since barriers such as 'high prices' and 'poor availability' prevailed for a long time.