In common understanding, being “cast in concrete” is understood as something that cannot be changed anymore, it is fixed forever. The same for buildings, if they are built out of concrete or cement they are everlasting. This master thesis analyses the very beginning of artificial stone use in Austria focusing on usage in gardens, parks and urban open space. The interesting questions are the following: How artificial stone usage was developed and how important did this new material become in professional circles? This development was affected by various factors. The most important aspects were the progress in the material development of cement, as well as economic, social and political events. Further the prevailing architecture, garden and art styles coined the artificial stone use. The role of the new material, its usage and the opinion of professionals can be found in articles of renowned journals. Initially concrete and cement were only cheap replacements for natural stone, but in the 20th century artificial stone found its way into landscape architecture. An essential influence had the upcoming architectural garden style which introduced an upswing for the use of artificial stone in urban open space. Following this first part of the master thesis which approaches the historical background and literature resources, the second part contains a documentation of artificial stone objects in different types of open space, such as feudal sites, gardens of villas, communal housing, urban open space, parks and industrial sites. The different objects found in these sites are for example bridges, benches, pergolas or sculptures. These up to 125 years art historical objects are important witnesses for the early artificial stone productions and still even today they are in fantastic conditions. It is really important to point out and preserve these objects due to the imminent danger of losing them as well as the knowledge about the early artificial stone usage.